Hi! We’re going to talk about Nelson Mandela, and what he did to stop Apartheid. We’ll start with some information about Apartheid because it is an important part in Mandela’s life. After that we’re going to continue with Mandela’s childhood and go longer into his life and tell about his history. We hope you’ll enjoy this presentation about Nelson Rolihlaha Mandela.
Racism sat in system:
Apartheid was a social and political policy of racial segregation and discrimination enforced by white minority governments in South Africa from 1948 to 1994.
It was a political system of racial segregation and was enforced by the “non-white” government in South Africa. Non-white means that it was a government with majority of black, but still, the white had the power in the country. The white people didn’t like the black people so South African began to colonize the community. New legislation classified inhabitants into racial groups like black, white, colored, and Indian. Many residential areas were segregated. Some of these did not accept the blacks and could risk to be killed if they showed their faces there. Things got worse and worse and the blacks couldn’t use the same toilets, go in the same shops and live in the same neighborhoods with the white. It was terrible for the colored.
There were a lot of demonstrations from the black people, and many organizations were established, for example ANC. Later we’re going to talk about this organization. Nelson Mandela was one of them who were against Apartheid, together with many others.
There are many debates about Apartheid, still. Is the racial segregation over? Is it still racism in the world? It’s different meanings about that, but we have concluded that racism not is over…yet. Black people are still suppressed. But is it a change to get rid of all of the world segregation and racial meanings? I don’t think it is possible to get away with all the racism if it is hate in the world.
Although Apartheid if official stopped we think it still exists, but not as much as before.
Now, we’re going to start with Nelson Mandela.
The reason for why we chose Nelson Mandela as our issue is because we wanted to learn more about him and what he did to stop Apartheid. We think he is a very important person, and he Profs that the Human Rights are very important for people to live a good life.
Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela was born in Transkei, in South Africa on July 18, 1918. His middle, Rolihlahla, means troublemaker. Also when Mandela was a child he dreamed of making his own country free, where black and white people could live together in harmony. He was the first member of his family to attend a school. After receiving primary education at a local mission school, he enrolled at the University College of Forte Hare for the Bachelor of Arts Degree where he met Oliver Tambo. Oliver and Nelson became lifelong friends, and worked together to stop Apartheid.
At the end of the first year of the college Nelson became involved in a boycott by the Students’ Representative Council against the university policies, and was told to leave the college. Then he went to Johannesburg to complete his Bachelor.
While he was studying there, in 1942, he joined the African National Congress (ANC). The organization was formed in 1912 by the black people. The reason for the creation was that the black people had no democratic rights, so they formed this organization, The African National Congress (ANC). The organization worked really hard against Apartheid.
They started the organization to convince the government that they not should be treated as equals, but the government didn’t accept it. First, ANC used peaceful methods like Strikes and demonstrations, but that didn’t work. So instead, the situation got worse and worse. After some bloody clashes, were the police shot demonstrators, the ANC decided to use violence in their struggle.
He joined ANC, and later he became the leader for the organization.
After completing his Bachelor he started with his law studies at the University of Witwatersrand. During this period Mandela lived in Alexandra Township, north of Johannesburg. Mandela has honorary degrees from more than 50 international universities.
After some years after Mandela became the leader, in 1944, an under organization of ANC was established to debate important issues, and was cold Youth League. It was established by Mandela and his good friend Oliver Tombo, and thet aand they had many important debates. The most important was about Apartheid and the segregation. Many members meant that the white people had to leave the country, and that the black was the real owner of Africa. Mandela resented this attitude. He believed that if they should get away the segregation, they had to live together in peace. It wouldn’t work to throw out the white.
At that time, the black people were suppressed by Apartheid. Mandela didn’t like this and though that this segregation was unfair. ANC and the Youth League had to do something to stop this. New methods for demonstrations were used, like boycott. In 1951 Mandela became president for the Youth League, and one year after the organization organized the biggest protest against Apartheid. This protest got many members, and got the name “disobedience campaign”.
Hundred of blacks got shoot and killed under the demonstration and many became arrested. Among the arrested people was Nelson Mandela. That was the first time Nelson was arrested. Mandela and many other members of ANC were accused for treason (altså forræderi mot landet). The trial was cold "The Treason Trial". Mandela was sentenced for treason, and because he was against the government. He was separated from his first wife Winnie Mandela and his two children when he became arrested. .
His years in prison
Mandela was sentenced to life imprisonment and sent to the notorious Robben Island Prison, a maximum security prison on a small island near Cape Town, where he spent nearly 18 years of his 27 years sentence. It was here he got his prisoner number 466/64 that he had to use in all of his three prison he was a prisoner in. In April 1984 he was transported to Polls moor Prison in Cape Town and later to the Victor Verster Prison near Paarl. It was here he later was released. In Victor Verster he worked as a slave for nine years, and got almost nothing food or water. The prisoners had to do much of hard work, like mining in the limestone mines. The prisoners were ordered after the color of their skin, and the black prisoners got lesser with food and water than the white. They were also forced to go with short pants, while the white could use solid clothes. This was Apartheids rules for the prisons in South Africa.
During his years in prison, Nelson Mandela's reputation grew steadily. He was widely accepted as the most significant black leader in South Africa and became a potent symbol of resistance as the anti-apartheid movement gathered strength. He consistently refused to compromise his political position to obtain his freedom.
On 11th February 1990, Mandela was released from Victor Verster Prison. The event was broadcasted live all over the world.
The year before Nelson became a president he received the Nobel’s peace price together with his friend Frederik Willem de Klerk. The reason for the peace price was because they had worked very hard for the Human Rights, and also worked against Apartheid.
Mandela became South Africa’s president I 1994. It was the first time the black people in the country could vote. Mandela won the president vote with 62 percent of the votes, and became South Africa’s first black president, Thabo Mbeki became vice-president, and Frederik Willem de Klare, Mandelas friend, became the second vice-president.
(don’t say this)Facts:
Mandela has been married three times, is father to six children, and has twenty grandchildren and a growing number of great-grandchildren. Mandela became the oldest elected President of South Africa when he took charge in 1994. He was 77 years old at that time and decided not to contest for the second time.