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Coca Cola Co.
Særoppgave om cocacola co.
The Coca Cola Company
I choose this theme becouse I`m a “cocaholic” and Coca Cola is my favourite
beverage, I don’t drink any other soda then Coca Cola.
So when I got the chance to write about whatever I waned to, I grabba the chance to learn something more about the one product I am living for. (hohohoho maibi a little bitt
The Coca Cola Company is the ones we can thanks for drinking liter after liter of soda every day. It is a beverage company and the world leader in soft drink sales. Coca Cola produces and distributes several brands in the United States and internationally. The company also produces and markets many fruit juices and other nonsoda beverages. The Coca Cola Company is based in Atlanta, Georgia.
Coca Cola’s soft drinks include its flagship product Coca Cola (popularly known as Coke), Diet Coke, Tab, Sprite, Fanta, Urge, Bon aqua, cherry coke, Aquarius and Barq’s root beer. The company’s nonsoda beverages include Minute Maid fruit juices, PowerAde sports drinks, Aquarius Kuli and Nestea iced tea drinks.
Coca Cola traces its origins to 1886 when John Pemberton, an Atlanta pharmacist who developed patent medicines, created a drink from carbonated water, cane sugar syrup, caffeine, and extracts of kola nuts and coca leaves. Pemberton found the drink both medicinal and refreshing, and he sought to market it. His bookkeeper, Frank M. Robinson, suggested the name Coca Cola after the two extracts in the ingredients and also wrote the product’s name in distinctive script. Coca Cola has used that same logo ever since. Pemberton and Robinson also coined the drink’s first vslogan, “Delicious and Refreshing.”
Pemberton, however, was ill, and he would not live to see his product’s success. In their first year selling Coke, he and his partners made only $50. Pemberton sold two-thirds of his business in 1888 to cover his losses and keep the business afloat. He died later that year and Asa Candler, an Atlanta wholesale druggist, purchased total interest in
Coca Cola for $2300 in 1891. The next year Candler and his brother John, Frank Robinson and two associates formed the CocaCola co.
In 1893 Candler registered Coca Cola as a patented trademark. He also responded to growing concerns over the dangers of cocaine by reducing the amount of coca in the drink to a trace. However, he kept some coca extract in Coca Cola so the name would accurately describe the drink. Candler only had a patent on the name, and not the drink syrup that is, the drink’s base, containing all the ingredients minus the carbonated water. He figured that keeping the coca in his formula would legally allow the company to distinguish its drink from imitations. Other companies also produced soda drinks made with kola nut extracts. In particular, the Pepsi-Cola Company (see PepsiCo, Inc.) and its cola of the same name (or Pepsi, for short) would become Coca Cola’s major competitor over the next few decades.
Candler also spent more than $11,000 on his first massive advertising campaign in 1892. The Coca Cola logo appeared across the country, painted as a mural on walls displayed on posters and soda fountains where the drink was served and imprinted on widely marketed, common household items, such as calendars and drinking glasses. In addition, Candler was the first person ever to use coupons to gain customers for a product. He distributed flyers offering free soda fountain glasses of Coca Cola to people visiting his drugstore.
In 1894 the Coca Cola company opened its first Coke syrup production plant outside of Atlanta, in Dallas, Texas. That same year a candy store owner in Vicksburg, Mississippi, installed bottling machines and produced the first bottled Coke. It had previously been sold only at soda fountains. By 1895 the drink was sold in all U.S. states and territories.
In 1899 lawyers Benjamin Thomas and Joseph Whitehead of Chattanooga, Tennessee, bought the exclusive rights to distribute Coke syrup to bottlers throughout most of the country for only one dollar. At the time, Candler saw little profit in bottling, and was more than willing to give up that part of the business. Their contract maintained that Candler could withdraw bottling rights, however, if the quality of bottled Coke was not consistently high. Because of differences in availability of time and money, Thomas and Whitehead split their partnership soon after it started. In 1890 Thomas took bottling rights for the Northeast and the West Coast. Whitehead received financial backing from Chattanooga businessman John Lupton, and the two formed the Dixie Coca Cola Bottling Plant in Atlanta. They had bottling rights for the Southeast, and they soon gained rights for the Southwest and Midwest as well. Their enterprise established an extensive bottling franchise system that still exists.
In 1915 the Root Glass Company created a contour glass bottle for Coke, its design based on the curvature of a coca bean. This bottle design became a Coke trademark worldwide. The same year, Candler retired from the company, passing it on to his children and moving into politics. He was elected mayor of Atlanta in 1916.
In 1919 the Candler family sold Coca Cola to businessman Ernest Woodruff of Columbus, Georgia, for $25 million. Woodruff’s son, Robert, was elected company president in 1923. Robert Woodruff was a skilled marketer, and he put more of the company’s resources into market research than into manufacturing Coke. Two new Coke slogans were developed under Woodruff: “The Pause that Refreshes” (1929) and “It’s the Real Thing” (1941).
During World War II (1939-1945), Woodruff also boosted Coke’s popular image in the United States by pledging that his company would provide Coke to every U.S. soldier. The company did not limit itself, however, to only doing business that would increase its success in America. In the period leading up to the war, between 1930 and 1936, it had set up a division of the company in Germany, and it continued that venture during the war. It recreated its image as a German company and allowed the Germans to produce all but two, secret, Coca Cola ingredients in their own factories. In 1941 the German company’s president, Max Keith, developed Fanta orange soda using orange flavoring and all the German-made Coke ingredients. The Coca Cola Company’s wartime efforts helped it expand its global market, often with the economic support of the U.S. government. By the end of the war in 1945, it had established 64 overseas bottling plants. That same year the company registered a patent on Coca Cola’s popular nickname, Coke.
In 1955 Robert Woodruff retired as the Coca Cola Company’s president. Candler and Woodruff are remembered as the two most important figures in the company’s early growth, both for their contributions to the company and their considerable fortunes donated to the city of Atlanta. After Woodruff’s departure, the company began to diversify by producing new products, acquiring new businesses, and entering new international markets.
In 1960 the Coca Cola Company purchased the Minute Maid Corp., producer of fruit juices, and began offering Coke in cans. Between 1960 and 1963 it also launched four new soft drinks in the United States: Fanta, an orange soda; Sprite, a lemon-lime soda; Tab, a diet cola; and Fresca, a diet grapefruit-flavored soda. In 1964 the company acquired the Duncan Foods Corp. In 1967 it created the Coca Cola Foods Division (later Coca Cola Foods) by merging its Duncan and Minute Maid operations.
In the late 1960s, Coca Cola faced difficulties in some of its foreign markets. When the company built a bottling plant in Israel at the outset of the Arab-Israeli War, the governments of all Arab League nations banned the production and sale of Coke. A year later the company withdrew from its markets in India when that country’s government requested that Coca Cola reduce its equity in joint ventures to 40 percent. The company refused to relinquish so much control over those operations.
In 1977 Coca Cola began packaging Coke and other drinks in two-liter plastic bottles. The popularity of these large bottles grew over time, and their sales earned the company new profits, primarily in small specialty and convenience stores. In 1982 the company introduced Diet Coke, which soon became the best-selling diet soft drink in the world.
Also in 1982 Coca Cola purchased the motion-picture company Columbia Pictures Industries, Inc., also known as Tri-Star Pictures, for almost $700 million. Two years later, the company sold off its Columbia holdings and other media aquisitions to Sony Corporation for over $1.5 billion.
By 1984 Pepsi-Cola had gained on Coke’s previous domination of the U.S. market to the point that the two had almost equal sales. In an attempt to regain market dominance, the company attempted the first ever revision of the original Coke recipe. The American public largely rejected New Coke, and so the company quickly returned to also producing the old recipe under the name Coca Cola Classic.
In 1986 The Coca Cola Company consolidated all of its nonfranchised U.S. bottling operations as Coca-Cola Enterprises, Inc. The new company began acquiring independent bottling companies, a venture that grew into the world’s largest bottler of soft drinks by 1988. While Coca Cola Enterprises distributes over half of all Coca Cola products in the United States, small franchise businesses continue to bottle, can, and distribute the company’s drinks worldwide.
In 1987 the Coca Cola Company was listed in the prestigious Dow Jones Industrial Averages (see Dow Jones Averages) index of stock market performance (for the second time, it had also been listed briefly in the 1930s). Its stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange. Coca Cola and PepsiCo products occupied nine of the top ten spots in the U.S. soft drink market in the mid-1990s. Worldwide, Coca Cola ranked first in soft drink sales, and the company earned almost 80 percent of its profits from international sales.
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