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Presidentvalget i USA
Manus til en engelsk presentasjon om presidentvalget i USA.
Picture 1: I am going to talk about U.S. politics and the presidential election. The reason I choose to talk about this topic is because there has just been an election in the United States and because the president of the Unites Sates is one of the world’s most powerful men, I think it is important to know how he is elected and why.
Picture 2: In the United States they use the Separation of powers, which means they have separated the power in three branches to prevent abuse of power. The three branches are the Congress as the legislative power: which makes the laws, the White House and the President as the Executive power: who makes sure the laws are being followed and the Supreme Court as the judicial power: which punishes the ones who breaks the laws.
Picture 3: The Congress consists of two chambers; the senate and the House of Representatives. Each state has representatives in booth of the chambers. Both chambers have to agree when a decision is being made, but the president can put down a veto and the decision is invalid.
Picture 4: The Senate. In the senate there are two senators from each state, which gives a total of 100 senators. A senators term lasts six years, but one third of the senate is up for election every second year. This can lead to some differences in which political party has the majority of the senators. The Senators are elected by popular vote in their home states. The leader of the Senate is the Vice President.
Picture 5: In the House of Representatives the number of Representatives depends on the size of the population. Sparsely populated states like Vermont, Delaware and Alaska only has one representative, while densely populated states like California has 53 and Florida which has 29. All the representatives are up for election every second year and represent one certain district in the state. The leader of the House of Representatives is called The Speaker and is also the person who becomes president if both the president and the vice president dies.
Picture 6: There are two major political parties in the United States; the Democratic Party and the Republican Party. Here the republicans are represented by the republican presidential candidate Mitt Romney and the Republican elephant, the democrats are represented by democratic president Barack Obama and the democratic Donkey.
Picture 7: The Democratic Party focuses on the community and that society should work together as one. Many people don’t like this because it means more taxes and that the government interferes in ordinary peoples business. The Republicans believe in a more “Survival of the Fittest” society where individual and economic freedom is the ultimate goal. A disadvantage about this type of politics is that many poor and disadvantaged people will not be able to take proper care of themselves.
Picture 8: There are other political parties in the United States like the Green Party, the Constitution Party and the Libertarian Party. But since each of these parties gets such a small percentage of the votes, they all go under the category “third party”. Here you see a pie chart over the popular votes from the 2008 election. This Third Party got a total of 1.1%.’
Picture 9: The Election of President is every forth year and it is the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November. But when the United States was established, founding fathers like Georg Washington did not believe that the peasants would do a good job electing the right president and therefore founded the indirect election of the President via electors. In the presidential election the American people vote for electors from the different parties. The electors then select the president in a meeting in January.
Picture 10: Each state has a number of electors equal to the number of senators and representatives put together. That means there are 538 electors and the first candidate to get more than 270 (50%) of these electors have won the election.
Picture 11: For example in a state like California, they have two senators and 53 representatives in the House of Representatives, which mean they have 55 electors. But if one candidate wins with 51% in California they don’t share the electors equally, the candidate with the most votes gets all the electors from that state.
Picture 12: In some sates it is almost certain which party is going to get the electors. But there are states called swing states where the outcome changes every election. Therefore these states are very important because the candidate who wins them is probably going to win the whole election.
Picture 13: A great example is the 2000 election where Al Gore and the Democratic Party got 500 000 more votes than George Bush and the Republican Party. But since George Bush had more electors he won the whole election.
Picture 14: The most important to remember from this presentation is
The Congress consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives
There are two major political parties
The American people vote for electors who vote for the President
Finally we can just conclude that the electors system works for The U.S. for now. But 6 billion dollars where spend on campaigning in the 2012 election and we can ask our self is that amount of money worth spending for a county in a financial crisis?
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